Thursday, 26 June 2008

Change your Network Card MAC Address on Ubuntu


There are a lot of reasons you might want to manually set your MAC address for your network card. I won't ask you what your reason is.

To change this setting, we'll need to edit the /etc/network/interfaces file. You can choose to use a different editor if you'd like.

gedit /etc/network/interfaces

You should see the line for your network interface, which is usually eth0. If you have dhcp enabled, it will look like this:

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp

Just add another line below it to make it look something like this:

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
hwaddress ether 01:02:03:04:05:06

Obviously you would want to choose something else for the MAC address, but it needs to be in the same format.

/etc/init.d/networking restart

You will need to restart networking or reboot to take effect.

Tuesday, 24 June 2008

Password Recovery Procedure for the Cisco

Applyed 2000, 2500, 3000, 4000, AccessPro, and 7000

Description
Step-by-Step Procedure
Example of Password Recovery on a Cisco 2500

Description

This document describes the password recovery procedure for the following Cisco products:

  • Cisco 2000
  • Cisco 2500
  • Cisco 3000
  • Cisco 4000
  • Cisco AccessPro
  • Cisco 7000 (RP)
  • Cisco AGS
  • Cisco IGS
  • Cisco STS-10x

Step-by-Step Procedure

Attach a terminal or PC with terminal emulation to the console port of the router. Use the following terminal settings:

9600 baud rate
No parity
8 data bits
1 stop bit
No flow control

  1. Type show version and record the setting of the configuration register. Click here to see output of a show version command.

The configuration register setting is usually 0x2102 or 0x102.

  1. Using the switch, turn off the router and then turn it on.
  2. Press Break on the terminal keyboard within 60 seconds of the powerup to put the router into ROMMON.

If the break sequence doesn't work, try CTRL+BREAK or use the terminal program to send the break as an ascii code.

  1. Type o/r 0x2142 at the > prompt to boot from Flash without loading the configuration.
  2. Type i at the > prompt.

The router reboots but ignores its saved configuration.

  1. Type no after each setup question or press Ctrl-C to skip the initial setup procedure.
  2. Type enable at the Router> prompt.

You'll be in enable mode and see the Router# prompt.

  1. Important Type config mem or copy start running to copy the nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) into memory. Do not type config term.
  2. Type wr term or show running.

The show running and wr term commands show the configuration of the router. In this configuration you see under all the interfaces the shutdown command, which means all interfaces are currently shutdown. Also, you can see the passwords either in encrypted or unencrypted format.

  1. Type config term and make the changes.

The prompt is now hostname(config)#.

  1. Type enable secret <password>.
  2. Issue the no shutdown command on every interface that is used. If you issue a show ip interface brief command, every interface that you want to use should be "up up".
  3. Type config-register 0x2102, or the value you recorded in step 2.
  4. Press Ctrl-z to leave the configuration mode.

The prompt is now hostname#.

  1. Type write mem or copy running startup to commit the changes.

Example of Password Recovery on a Cisco 2500

The example shown here is password recovery on a Cisco 2500.

Router>en
Password:
Password:
Password:
% Bad secrets
 
Router>show version
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
IOS (tm) 2500 Software (C2500-JS-L), Version 12.0(7)T,  RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2)
Copyright (c) 1986-1999 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Mon 06-Dec-99 17:10 by phanguye
Image text-base: 0x0306C4E0, data-base: 0x00001000
 
ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 5.2(8a), RELEASE SOFTWARE
BOOTFLASH: 3000 Bootstrap Software (IGS-RXBOOT), Version 10.2(8a), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
 
Router uptime is 5 minutes
System returned to ROM by power-on
System image file is "flash:/c2500-js-l.120-7.T"
 
cisco 2500 (68030) processor (revision D) with 8192K/2048K bytes of memory.
Processor board ID 02315272, with hardware revision 00000000
Bridging software.
X.25 software, Version 3.0.0.
SuperLAT software (copyright 1990 by Meridian Technology Corp).
TN3270 Emulation software.
1 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
1 Token Ring/IEEE 802.5 interface(s)
2 Serial network interface(s)
32K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.
16384K bytes of processor board System flash (Read ONLY)
 
Configuration register is 0x2102
Router>
 
!--- The router was just powercycled and during bootup a
!--- break sequence was sent to the router.
!
 
Abort at 0x10EA83C (PC)
>o/r 0x2142
>i
 
System Bootstrap, Version 5.2(8a), RELEASE SOFTWARE
Copyright (c) 1986-1995 by cisco Systems
2500 processor with 8192 Kbytes of main memory
 
F3: 13626872+197596+780568 at 0x3000060
 
             Restricted Rights Legend
 
Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is
subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph
(c) of the Commercial Computer Software - Restricted
Rights clause at FAR sec. 52.227-19 and subparagraph
(c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer
Software clause at DFARS sec. 252.227-7013.
 
            cisco Systems, Inc.
            170 West Tasman Drive
            San Jose, California 95134-1706
 
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
IOS (tm) 2500 Software (C2500-JS-L), Version 12.0(7)T,  RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2)
Copyright (c) 1986-1999 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Mon 06-Dec-99 17:10 by phanguye
Image text-base: 0x0306C4E0, data-base: 0x00001000
 
cisco 2500 (68030) processor (revision D) with 8192K/2048K bytes of memory.
Processor board ID 02315272, with hardware revision 00000000
Bridging software.
X.25 software, Version 3.0.0.
SuperLAT software (copyright 1990 by Meridian Technology Corp).
TN3270 Emulation software.
1 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
1 Token Ring/IEEE 802.5 interface(s)
2 Serial network interface(s)
32K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.
16384K bytes of processor board System flash (Read ONLY)
 
        --- System Configuration Dialog ---
 
Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: 
!--- Ctrl-C pressed
!
 
Press RETURN to get started!
 
00:00:08: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Ethernet0, changed state to up
00:00:08: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0, changed state to up
00:00:08: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial1, changed state to up
00:00:09: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0, changed state to up
00:00:09: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial1, changed state to up
00:01:29: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Ethernet0, changed state to up
00:01:29: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Ethernet0Translating "Router"...domain server (255.255.255.255)
, changed state to up
00:01:30: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial1, changed state to up
00:01:31: %SYS-5-RESTART: System restarted --
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software 
IOS (tm) 2500 Software (C2500-JS-L), Version 12.0(7)T,  RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2)
Copyright (c) 1986-1999 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Mon 06-Dec-99 17:10 by phanguye
00:01:32: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0, changed state to down
00:01:33: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Ethernet0, changed state to administratively down
00:01:33: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial0, changed state to administratively down
00:01:33: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial1, changed state to administratively down
00:01:33: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface TokenRing0, changed state to administratively down
00:01:34: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Ethernet0, changed state to down
00:01:34: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial1, changed state to down
00:01:34: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface TokenRing0, changed state to down
Router>en
Router#copy start run
Destination filename [running-config]? 
 
1278 bytes copied in 10.448 secs (127 bytes/sec)
 
Router#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#enable secret Cisco
Router(config)#int e0
Router(config-if)#no shut 
*Mar  1 00:04:12.863: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Ethernet0, changed state to up
*Mar  1 00:04:13.947: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Ethernet0, changed state to up
Router(config-if)#int s0
Router(config-if)#no shut
*Mar  1 00:04:18.107: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0, changed state to up
*Mar  1 00:04:19.167: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0, changed state to up
Router(config-if)#int s1
Router(config-if)#no shut
Router(config-if)#
*Mar  1 00:04:27.055: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial1, changed state to up
*Mar  1 00:04:28.071: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial1, changed state to up
Router(config-if)#exit
Router(config)#config-register 0x2102
Router(config)#^Z
Router#wr mem
*Mar  1 00:05:09.035: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
Building configuration...
[OK]
Router#
Router#

Cisco Router Configuration Commands


Requirement

Cisco Command

Set a console password to cisco

Router(config)#line con 0
Router(config-line)#login
Router(config-line)#password cisco

Set a telnet password

Router(config)#line vty 0 4
Router(config-line)#login
Router(config-line)#password cisco

Stop console timing out

Router(config)#line con 0
Router(config-line)#exec-timeout 0 0

Set the enable password to cisco

Router(config)#enable password cisco

Set the enable secret password to peter.

This password overrides the enable password and is encypted within the config file

Router(config)#enable secret peter

Enable an interface

Router(config-if)#no shutdown

To disable an interface

Router(config-if)#shutdown

Set the clock rate for a router with a DCE cable to 64K

Router(config-if)clock rate 64000

Set a logical bandwidth assignment of 64K to the serial interface

Router(config-if)bandwidth 64
Note that the zeroes are not missing

To add an IP address to a interface

Router(config-if)#ip addr 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0

To enable RIP on all 172.16.x.y interfaces

Router(config)#router rip
Router(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0

Disable RIP

Router(config)#no router rip

To enable IRGP with a AS of 200, to all interfaces

Router(config)#router igrp 200
Router(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0

Disable IGRP

Router(config)#no router igrp 200

Static route the remote network is 172.16.1.0, with a mask of 255.255.255.0, the next hop is 172.16.2.1, at a cost of 5 hops

Router(config)#ip route 172.16.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.2.1 5

Disable CDP for the whole router

Router(config)#no cdp run

Enable CDP for he whole router

Router(config)#cdp run

Disable CDP on an interface

Router(config-if)#no cdp enable

Cisco Router Show Commands

Requirement

Cisco Command

View version information

show version

View current configuration (DRAM)

show running-config

View startup configuration (NVRAM)

show startup-config

Show IOS file and flash space

show flash

Shows all logs that the router has in its memory

show log

View the interface status of interface e0

show interface e0

Overview all interfaces on the router

show ip interfaces brief

View type of serial cable on s0

show controllers 0 (note the space between the 's' and the '0')

Display a summary of connected cdp devices

show cdp neighbor

Display detailed information on all devices

show cdp entry *

Display current routing protocols

show ip protocols

Display IP routing table

show ip route

Display access lists, this includes the number of displayed matches

show access-lists

Check the router can see the ISDN switch

show isdn status

Check a Frame Relay PVC connections

show frame-relay pvc

show lmi traffic stats

show frame-relay lmi

Display the frame inverse ARP table

show frame-relay map

Cisco Router Basic Operations

Requirement

Cisco Command

Enable

Enter privileged mode

Return to user mode from privileged

disable

Exit Router

Logout or exit or quit

Recall last command

up arrow or

Recall next command

down arrow or

Suspend or abort

and and 6 then x

Refresh screen output


Compleat Command

TAB

Cisco Router Copy Commands

Requirement

Cisco Command

Save the current configuration from DRAM to NVRAM

copy running-config startup-config

Merge NVRAM configuration to DRAM

copy startup-config running-config

Copy DRAM configuration to a TFTP server

copy runing-config tftp

Merge TFTP configuration with current router configuration held in DRAM

copy tftp runing-config

Backup the IOS onto a TFTP server

copy flash tftp

Upgrade the router IOS from a TFTP server

copy tftp flash

Cisco Router Debug Commands

Requirement

Cisco Command

Enable debug for RIP

debug ip rip

Enable summary IGRP debug information

debug ip igrp events

Enable detailed IGRP debug information

debug ip igrp transactions

Debug IPX RIP

debug ipx routing activity

Debug IPX SAP

debug IPX SAP

Enable debug for CHAP or PAP

debug ppp authentication

Switch all debugging off

no debug all

undebug all


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latin small letter a with circumflex
latin small letter a with tilde
latin small letter a with diaeresis
latin small letter a with ring above
latin small letter ae
latin small letter c with cedilla
latin small letter e with grave
latin small letter e with acute
latin small letter e with circumflex
latin small letter e with diaeresis
latin small letter i with grave
latin small letter i with acute
latin small letter i with circumflex
latin small letter i with diaeresis

ASCII

HTML

HTML

Dec

Hex

Symbol

Number

Name

Description


240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255

F0
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
FA
FB
FC
FD
FE
FF

ð
ñ
ò
ó
ô
õ
ö
÷
ø
ù
ú
û
ü
ý
þ
ÿ

ð
ñ
ò
ó
ô
õ
ö
÷
ø
ù
ú
û
ü
ý
þ
ÿ

ð
ñ
ò
ó
ô
õ
ö
÷
ø
ù
ú
û
ü
ý
þ
ÿ

latin small letter eth
latin small letter n with tilde
latin small letter o with grave
latin small letter o with acute
latin small letter o with circumflex
latin small letter o with tilde
latin small letter o with diaeresis
division sign
latin small letter o with slash
latin small letter u with grave
latin small letter u with acute
latin small letter u with circumflex
latin small letter u with diaeresis
latin small letter y with acute
latin small letter thorn
latin small letter y with diaeresis





HTML 4.01, ISO 10646, ISO 8879, Latin extended A and B,
Browser support: Internet Explorer > 4, Netscape > 4

HTML

HTML

Dec

Hex

Symbol

Number

Name

Description


338
339
352
353
376
402

152
153
160
161
178
192

Œ
œ
Š
š
Ÿ
ƒ

Œ
œ
Š
š
Ÿ
ƒ






latin capital letter OE
latin small letter oe
latin capital letter S with caron
latin small letter s with caron
latin capital letter Y with diaeresis
latin small f with hook - function

HTML

HTML

Dec

Hex

Symbol

Number

Name

Description


8211
8212
8216
8217
8218
8220
8221
8222
8224
8225
8226
8230
8240
8364
8482

2013
2014
2018
2019
201A
201C
201D
201E
2020
2021
2022
2026
2030
20AC
2122










































en dash
em dash
left single quotation mark
right single quotation mark
single low-9 quotation mark
left double quotation mark
right double quotation mark
double low-9 quotation mark
dagger
double dagger
bullet
horizontal ellipsis
per thousand sign
euro sign
trade mark sign